Investigation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Dairy Cattle from Kageshwari and Shankharapur Municipalities, of Kathmandu, Nepal and Associated Risk Factors from March to April 2020

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Manoj Kumar Shahi Khemmapat Boonyo Vilaiporn Wongphruksasoong Mukul Upadhyaya Sujan Rana Surendra Karki Samjhana Kumari Kafle Sharmila Kafle

Abstract

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Nepal and significantly impacts the livelihood of farmers, national economy, and trade of Nepal. However, outbreak investigations are not frequently conducted, and there have been limited studies to understand the associated risk factors. A case-control study was performed in dairy cattle farms of Shankharapur and Kageshwari Municipalities, Kathmandu from March to April 2020 to describe the outbreak and identify the risk factors associated with FMD. There were 31 case farms, while 62 farms were selected as control farms (1:2). The information from case and control farms was collected by semi-structured questionnaire survey through field visits and observations. The univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed. The farm-level prevalence of FMD was 25.2% (n=31/123). Among the FMD affected farms, the proportion of positive farms in Shankharapur (61.3% (19/31)) was significantly higher than Kageshwori (38.7% (12/31)). The final multivariable logistic regression analysis identified four variables: cattle purchased within 14 days (OR=12.9; CI=2.4-69.5), milk market distance less than two kilometers from the farm (OR=32.7; CI=5.8-186.3), sharing of the bull from other farms for natural insemination (OR=5.7; CI=1.2-26.8), and no vaccination against FMD in the past six months (OR=19.1; CI=2.0-186.2) as significant risk factors for the occurrence of FMD. This study suggests farmers vaccinate their dairy cattle with FMD vaccine as per the vaccination schedule suggested by the veterinarians, practice quarantine measures when new animals are introduced to their farms, practice biosecurity measures in their farms, and do not use bulls from areas where there are ongoing FMD outbreaks.


Keywords: epidemiology, FMD, Kathmandu, outbreak investigation, risk factors


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SHAHI, Manoj Kumar et al. Investigation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Dairy Cattle from Kageshwari and Shankharapur Municipalities, of Kathmandu, Nepal and Associated Risk Factors from March to April 2020. OSIR Journal, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 2, june 2021. ISSN 2651-1061. Available at: <http://osirjournal.net/index.php/osir/article/view/236>. Date accessed: 27 sep. 2021.
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